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11.   Gustav Freytag Describes a Liberal Election Campaign in Erfurt (January 21 and 30, 1867)
Gustav Freytag (1816-1895) was one of the most popular German novelists of the second half....
12.   Heinrich von Sybel Describes the Structure of the German Empire and the Prospects for Liberty (January 1, 1871)
A student of the famous Leopold von Ranke, Heinrich von Sybel (1817-1895) went on to become one....
13.   Hellmuth von Gerlach Describes a Conservative Election Campaign in Rural Silesia (1880s)
Hellmuth von Gerlach (1866-1935) began his career as an antisemitic journalist and follower of the Christian Social Party, which functioned as a wing of the conservative movement. Later, he became....
14.   Hellmuth von Gerlach on Leading Antisemites and their Agitation (1880s)
Hellmuth von Gerlach (1866-1935) was a member of the Association of German Students [Verein....
15.   Henrik Ibsen’s "Balloon Letter" Expresses Fear of German Militarism (December 1870)
In early December 1870, three months after the French defeat at the Battle of Sedan (September 1-2), Paris was under siege, encircled by German forces determined to bring the Franco-Prussian War....
16.   Imperial Press Law (May 7, 1874)
The Imperial Press Law of 1874 represented the culmination of liberals’ efforts to shed the fetters of censorship that had been invoked after the revolutions of 1848/49. This law was one of the most....
17.   Jacob Burckhardt on Bismarck’s Legacy (1890)
Jacob Burckhardt (1818-1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture, particularly the Renaissance. He held a professorship in Basel from 1858 until his retirement in 1893. The following text is....
18.   Karl Marx’s Critique of the Gotha Program (April/May 1875)
When the two wings of the German Social Democratic movement fused at the Gotha Congress in 1875, forming the Socialist Workers’ Party of Germany, Karl Marx (1818-1883) strongly opposed the new program.....
19.   Law on Freedom of Movement (November 1, 1867)
The Law on Freedom of Movement from November 1, 1867, made it possible for inhabitants of the North German Confederation to move their abode from one federation state to another without serious disadvantage.....
20.   Law on Freedom of Occupation [Gewerbefreiheit] and Freedom of Coalition [Koalitionsfreiheit] (June 21, 1869)
This law, passed in the Reichstag of the North German Confederation, was adopted for Imperial Germany in 1871 as the Imperial Industrial Code [Reichsgewerbeordnung]. It standardized and simplified....
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