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1.   Broadside against the Construction of a Chemical Factory in the Ruhr Industrial Basin (c. 1874)
In the nineteenth century, Germany’s chemical industry caused massive health problems for workers and those living near chemical factories. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid were....
2.   Carl Peters on Socialist Opposition to Colonial Policy (February 9 and 16, 1886)
The colonial adventurer Carl Peters (1856-1918) “acquired” the territory of German East Africa in 1885 by means of a Royal....
3.   Constitution of the German Empire (April 16, 1871)
A provisional constitution had been in effect since January 1, 1871, but it consisted of various components and required amendment after the proclamation of the German Empire on January 18, 1871.....
4.   Count Friedrich von Beust in Praise of the German Confederation (1887)
Like the Württemberg democrat Ludwig Pfau (1821-1894), Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust....
5.   Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Describes a Prussian State Council Meeting (January 17, 1871)
Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm (1831-1888) was the son of Prussian King and German Kaiser Wilhelm I. He was the father of Kaiser Wilhelm II. He ruled Prussia and Germany for only 99 days, from March....
6.   Dual Alliance with Austria (October 7, 1879)
Russia emerged from the Congress of Berlin (1878) resenting Germany’s role in blocking its advance in the Balkans. Confronted with the possibility of choosing between Russia and Austria-Hungary,....
7.   Elections to the German Reichstag (1871-1890): A Statistical Overview
The Reichstag (imperial parliament) of the German Reich was elected by universal, equal, direct, and secret male suffrage. For most of the imperial period, 397 deputies sat in the Reichstag, each....
8.   Friedrich Fabri, Does Germany Need Colonies? (1879)
The text below was written by Dr. Friedrich Fabri (1824-1891), who has been called the “father of the German colonial movement.” From 1857 onward, Fabri’s main occupation was Director of the Barmen....
9.   German Crown Princess Victoria Criticizes Bismarck’s Personal Regime as Dictatorial (1887-89)
German Crown Princess Victoria was the daughter of Britain’s Queen Victoria and married to Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm (1831-1888), who ruled as Kaiser Friedrich III for a mere 99 days before....
10.   German Liberalism Recast: Hermann Baumgarten’s Self-Criticism (Early October 1866)
Hermann Baumgarten (1825-1893) was a historian, political publicist, and, after 1872, Professor of History at the Reich University of Straßburg. He was a champion of German liberalism and from 1859....
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