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Constitution of the German Empire (April 16, 1871)

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Art. 3
For the whole of Germany one common nationality exists with the effect that every person (subject, State citizen) belonging to any one of the federated States is to be treated in every other of the federated States as a born native and accordingly must be permitted to have a fixed dwelling, to trade, to be appointed to public offices, to acquire property, to obtain the rights of a State citizen, and to enjoy all other civil rights under the same presuppositions as the natives, and likewise is to be treated equally with regard to legal prosecution or legal protection.

No German may be restricted from the exercise of this right by the authorities of his own State or by the authorities of any of the other federated States.

Those regulations which have reference to the care of the poor and their admission into local communities are not affected by the principles set down in the first paragraph.

Until further notice the Treaties likewise remain in force which have been entered into by the particular States of the Federation regarding the reception of persons expelled, the care of sick persons, and the burial of deceased persons belonging to the States.

What is necessary for the fulfilment of military duty in relation to the native country will be ordered by Reich legislation.

Every German has the same claim to the protection of the Reich with regard to foreign nations.

Art. 4
The following affairs are subject to the superintendence and legislation of the Reich:

1. the regulations as to freedom of movement, domicile and settlement affairs, right of citizenship, passport and police regulations for aliens, and as to transacting business including insurance affairs in so far as these objects are not already provided for by Art. 3 of this Constitution. In Bavaria, however, the domicile and settlement affairs, and likewise the affairs of colonisation and emigration to foreign countries, are herefrom excluded;

2. the customs and commercial legislation and the taxes which are to be applied to the requirements of the Reich;

3. the regulation of the system of coinage, weights and measures, likewise the establishment of the principles for the issue of funded and unfunded paper money;

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